There are six types of technologies in 5G, these are:
- The New Radio (NR)
- The Internet of Things (IoT)
- Femto-Cellular relay (FCR)
- Massive MIMO
- Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence
- Relay Nodes
The New Radio (NR)
The NR is the most important type of technology in 5G, as it creates fast and efficient connections. It will be used for both mobile and fixed-line networks. Currently, there are two versions of the NR:
This version needs a 4G/LTE network to provide it with the capacity to maintain existing services like telephony and broadband.
The SA version will operate independently, as it doesn’t need any backhaul for mobile services. It is mainly used in rural areas where there are no 4G/LTE or fibre connections.
Both versions of the NR have around 10 bands available for operation, but the 3GPP standardization organization currently approves only 3 bands.
The 5G NR will handle a wide range of frequencies between 400 MHz and 6 GHz, which is an order of magnitude wider than what was used with previous generations. There are two main options:
Licensed Bands (LBS)
The LBS provide stable, wide and low-latency connections to the end-users. They are used for high-data-rate services like video conferencing or mobile broadband.
Unlicensed Bands (UBS)
The UBS provide less stable but more scalable connectivity between multiple devices at lower data rates. They can be used for different IoT applications, such as wireless surveillance cameras.
The 5G NR is being designed to provide both high bandwidth and low latency and the potential for ultra-dense networks.
The NSA version of the NR will be developed in 2017 and 2018, while the SA version will be late, most likely 2019 or 2020. The first commercial deployments were expected in 2020, and the first standalone networks will likely be deployed in 2021.
The Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a term used to refer to the network of physical objects that contain electronics, software, sensors and connectivity, which enables them and allows for them to exchange data with the internet.
The increasing number of IoT devices is an integral part of the 5G rollout. These devices will create the wireless network needed to produce the next-generation mobile experience that consumers expect.
Femto-Cellular relay (FCR)
The FCR technology is types of technologies in 5G used for 4G and 5G mobile networks to provide a coverage extension of the macrocells. This will help in relieving congestion. There are two main types of FCR:
– The smaller type, which includes a transceiver and an antenna. This type is installed at the subscriber’s premises. It will act as a traditional cell phone tower to cover indoor areas where the coverage of the macrocell network is limited.
– The larger type consists of a base station controller (BSC) and transceivers/antennas. Again, these are deployed within buildings to cover a limited indoor area.
Both types of FCR will be needed to provide coverage extension for both 4G and 5G networks.
Massive MIMO (MIMO)
This technology is used in both the macrocells and the small cells like picocells or femtocells. The Massive MIMO can create a high density of broadband connections in a limited area. This scalable and energy-efficient technology will be vital for resource-limited environments are, such as rural areas or indoor public spaces like stadiums.
Massive MIMO consists of two categories:
Base Station (BS) – A base station consists of a large antenna array that creates the MIMO channels in each sector. It is mounted on a rooftop or the side of buildings.
User Equipment (UE) – The UE also uses an array of antennas, but instead of being connected to BS, it is connected to the small cell-like pico-cell or femtocell.
To improve the performance of Massive MIMO networks, multiple antennas are required as they will boost cell capacity and increase coverage and reduce handover failures. The 5G NR standard allows for up to 32 antennas in a single base station sector.
Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence
The 5G NR specification lays out a design to allow for artificial intelligence and machine learning in the network. For example, it will be possible for an AI-based system to allocate the necessary resources for specific applications on-demand dynamically.
This can be achieved by embedding machine learning into the 5G architecture, making decisions locally with minimal latency, and communicating this to other parts of the network. These systems could help make networks more efficient and offer improved services to meet user expectations.
Relay nodes are used in 5G networking as a transmission procedure. It is a type of wireless mesh networking that provides ad-hoc service with less power consumption and transmission power.
The usage of relay nodes is a much more efficient and faster way to transmit data from the source to the destination.
A Femtocell in 5G networking is used to improve the coverage of a base station and extend the service area. It has its transmission power, antenna system, an RF chain. They are not connected to any wired network but can be connected to other femtos. The femtocell is connected to the base station through a backhaul network like 4G LTE or 5G. The node is used to provide wireless broadband services with limited service areas and not enough users in its range to cover for it.
Radio Resource Management (RRM)
The RRM technology will help select which radio channel and frequency band should be used to avoid interference between the neighbouring cells and resolve interference as soon as possible.
This technology will also manage the channel status and the radio interface between BS and UE. The RRM is a key component of 5G NR that can use system intelligence and machine learning algorithms for better performance.
Network Function Virtualization (NFV)
This technology is used to help develop networks by using many services, applications, and network functions as a single unit. This will enable the operators to manage their networks more efficiently and provide more services with better quality.
The 5G wireless network is built on a foundation of artificial intelligence and machine learning. The new system will make decisions locally with minimal latency, which means that your customers’ experience will improve as they won’t have to wait for the network’s response. These types of technologies in 5G infrastructure also enable operators to offer more services in their networks with better quality.